No. 2 / May 2020 65570 www.newenergy.info magazine for climate action and renewable energy Challenging Asia Europe’s battery revolution Crisis mode Coronavirus and the wind industry Learning to care Can AI help save the planet?
Subscribe to the switch to renewables! No. 2 / May 2020 65570 www.newenergy.info magazine for climate action and renewable energy Challenging Asia Europe’s battery revolution Crisis mode Coronavirus and the wind industry Subscribe online at www.newenergy.info/ subscriptions No. 1 / February 2020 65570 www.newenergy.info magazine for climate action and renewable energy e n Finance for Future The rise of green investing 15 05 20 14:30 15.05.20 14:30 EV boom A reluctant transition Land of extremes Climate change in Chile Learning to care Can AI help save the planet? No . 5 / O c tob er 2019 65570 www. ne wener g y. inf o magaz ine fo r c l ima te ac t ion and renewab le ene rgy uBuuBBBBBBBBBBB rrsrsrssstitingngn Bursting ngg B the bubble thhhhththththththt ee e bbuubb bbbbblele Germany’s disappointing pointing pointing point point pp ps p sapp ddisisapp ddd d d ny’s sny nyy ny GermGermameeGermeee Germa Germa GermGermGermerererGermerG Germeee e cka e ckakageage climate package kag c limclim te pa te p te imimama lima lima lima limimimimclima clima clima clima clima clima i C leaner sh ipp ing Replacing dirty diesel S ink or sw im? The rise of oating solar 22 .10 .19 14 :24 . e d e e s e d n a w w w .
Beyond coronavirus The ongoing pandemic is forcing us into a change of course, and there is a good chance that the transformation will be a sustainable one. Covid-19 has exposed the weaknesses of our social and economic system, affecting every area of our lives and work. The climate and energy sector are no exception. Who would have thought that the price of oil could fall below zero dollars? Is this the beginning of the end for the “lubricant of the global economy”? At the very least, it is a sign of things to come – while some processes around the world are slowing down, elsewhere things are moving at a much faster pace than we could ever have imagined. Nevertheless, the energy transition – as in the past – will not progress un- aided. A positive inﬂuence is the commitment of European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen to climate action and digitalisation. The technological possibilities at the conﬂuence of these two ﬁelds are explored in this edition’s cover story. After all, increasing the share of renewables in our energy mix means re- thinking the entire system, along with its underlying market mechanisms. Intelligent digital technology opens up fascinating possibilities in this regard – for climate action and for the economy, which cannot count on the coro- navirus being defeated any time soon. Rebooting all sectors of the economy under a new set of assumptions is our only chance to meet the EU’s climate targets and trigger job creation on a grand scale. If a majority of EU Member States were to commit to the roadmap out- lined by von der Leyen, this would take the wind out of the sails of the eter- nal doubters and critics of the system transformation. A lasting green eco- nomic boom would probably be the most effective argument against their pervasive fears of recession. Angela Merkel seized the opportunity of the Petersberg Climate Dialogue to leave no room for doubt that the multi-billion euro stimulus programme now needed must have an ecological steering effect. This gives the right sig- nal – but words must be followed by deeds, which have so often failed to materialise in the past. For instance, Germany’s renewables industry is still waiting for a revised Renewables Act that does away with the obstacles to the energy transition once and for all. Moreover, the German chancellor faces the delicate task of dealing with critics from within her own ranks. Plans to boost the ambition of the EU’s 2030 climate targets circulating in Brussels do not sit well with Merkel’s par- ty – not least as Germany will most likely fail to meet even the current tar- gets. Accordingly, CDU/CSU politicians want national emissions reduction quotas to be adjusted in Germany’s favour. It is vital that the squabbling over this issue does not cause von der Leyen to yield in her pursuit of effective cli- mate action. Germany has too often been allowed to hold back the energy transition in Brussels. If the same thing happens again this time around, we will soon be facing a crisis far worse than the current pandemic. I wish you an interesting read! Jörg-Rainer Zimmermann Editor-in-chief Editorial new energy 2/2020 3
Thinking machines: supercomputers like this one at Dresden University of Technology can perform immensely complex tasks – and consume vast amounts of power in the process. 24 ENERGY POLITICS 12 | Uncertain times 3 | Editorial 6 | Cooperation with EREF 8 | News: German chancellor backs tougher targets, climate talks postponed, court halts Heathrow expansion, South Korea announces zero carbon roadmap, EU delays climate decisions. 10 | Spain aims to double renewables share Most Member States sent their Energy and Climate Plans for 2030 to Brussels by the end of last year. Spain has ﬁnally followed suit with a raft of ambitious targets, while a few stragglers – Germany among them – are still dragging their feet. How coronavirus is affecting the European wind industry. 14 | “Covid-19 can trigger fundamental change,” believes WindEurope CEO Giles Dickson. 16 | A bumpy year It’s that time of year again: wind turbine operators pass judgement on service providers in the latest edition of the BWE Service Survey. TECHNOLOGIES 23 | News: Salvaging raw materials from biogas production, electricity from raindrops, wildﬁres surround Chernobyl. BUSINESS COVER STORY Digitalisation 11 | News: Negative power prices surge amid 24 | When megatrends collide coronavirus slump, First State buys major stake in MVV Energie, no more Streetscooters, VSB acquired by Partners Group. In an increasingly digital world, technology threatens to do more harm than good when it comes to the environment. Efforts are being made to chart a more climate-friendly course before it is too late. 4 new energy 2/2020 t f a r K h t i d u J / T E E M , s e g a m I y t t e G / g r e b m o o l B / l l o r h c S m a r f l o W m u s i V / l e s ö L n e g r ü J : s o t o h P , , s e g a m I y t t e G / o t o h p k c o t S i : r e v o C
Contents 12 40 Closed for business: few economic sectors have escaped the ravages of the coronavirus pandemic. The wind industry is no exception. Beyond lithium: researchers at the MEET research centre in Münster are working on the batteries of the future. 27 | AI vs. climate change Intelligent machines can provide a much-needed boost to the energy transition and climate action – but they are no silver bullet. 32 | A contradictory role Impressive measures pledged by leading tech giants in the ﬁght against climate change mask their direct support for some of the worst climate sinners. 36 | Young, diverse and digital Faced with restrictions that rule out mass demonstrations for the foreseeable future, the climate movement has taken its protests online. 40 | Taking charge European companies and research institutes are investing in gigafactories and R&D to build a battery industry that aspires to compete with the likes of China and South Korea. Service 43 | Events 44 | Addresses 45 | Energy people: Hans-Jürgen Brick, Peter Rüth, Rainer Pﬂaum, David Mesonero, Thomas Spannring, Joe Kaeser, Roland Busch, Christian Bruch, Anders Nielsen, Anders Vedel, Tommy Rahbek Nielsen, Pekka Lundmark, Bernhard Reutersberg, Werner Brinker, Bernhard Günther, Klaus-Dieter Maubach, As Tempelman, Ruud Sondag, António Sá da Costa. 46 | Company directory 47 | luftpost newsletter Cooperation with Deutsche Windtechnik new energy 2/2020 5
BUSINESS _Guest article Guest article* How 2020 could become the year in which Europe lays the foundations for climate neutrality When Ursula von der Leyen presented herself to the Europe- an Parliament in July 2019 as a candi- date for the presidency of the Europe- an Commission, she gave an inspiring speech outlining her vision of an EU Green Deal for growth, employment and sustainability. Little did she know back then that Europe would be facing an unprecedented pandemic within her ﬁrst year of ofﬁce. Covid-19 has shaken up the world. The pandemic has para- lysed our economies. European coun- tries are only slowly lifting the strict reg- ulations put in place to stop the spread of the virus. While factories, businesses and shops are developing sophisticated health and safety concepts, estimates report an eco- nomic hit of -5 to -12 percent of Eu- rope’s GDP in the short term, with long-term effects for jobs and compa- nies. If Europe wants to overcome this critical period, it must get its response to Covid-19 right. Luckily, with the EU Green Deal, the EU Commission has the right strategy at hand. A minority of governments have argued that the pan- demic is a reason to delay the EU Green Deal. Quite the opposite is true. The EU Green Deal is the right objective at the right time! A crucial year for energy policy This year will have a decisive impact on energy policy and climate protection for years to come. And Brussels will be lead- ing the way with several hugely important decisions on the table. Some examples? Europe is pushing for a higher 2030 greenhouse gas emissions reduction tar- get. The Commission wants to raise the reduction target from its current level of 40 percent to 50-55 percent. Many Member States support this goal. Jytte Guteland, the European Parliament’s lead lawmaker on the Climate Law proposal, wants the target to be as high as 65 per- cent. The effects of a more ambitious tar- get would be far-reaching, and an impor- tant signal to industry and investors to embrace renewable technologies. In October, the EU Offshore Ener- gy Strategy will draw a roadmap for off- shore wind expansion and maritime spa- tial planning. To reach the Green Deal targets, offshore wind needs to grow from 22 GW installed today to 450 GW by 2050. This requires international co- operation, rapid permitting and massive investments in grid infrastructure. With its increased 20 GW target for 2030, the German government is on the right track here. However, Germany’s expansion tra- jectory for the years after 2030 remains unclear. The EU Smart Sector Integration Strategy is another milestone on Eu- rope’s agenda for 2020. It will acceler- 14 new energy 2/2020
ate the process of using wind energy to power mobility, heating and industrial processes. The overall share of electric- ity in Europe’s energy mix will be far higher in 2050: at least 50 percent, com- pared to 20-25 percent today. Renew- ables will play a greater role in the over- all energy system. Renewable hydrogen, another element of the strategy, will be key to achieve climate neutrality in sec- tors that are difﬁcult to electrify directly. With new investments in research and development, Europe has the chance to become a global market leader in renew- able hydrogen. The export opportuni- ties are immense. And Germany, with its large fleet of wind turbines and indus- trial expertise, has an important starting advantage. All these measures need a reliable and plentiful supply of wind energy. Dur- ing the coronavirus pandemic, wind has proven its reliability. Wind power gener- ation has continued largely without dis- ruptions. Today, wind makes up 15 per- cent of Europe’s electricity. This figure is expected to grow to up to 50 percent by 2050. An acceleration of new instal- lations is inevitable. But many obstacles remain. Looking at the German mar- ket, Minister Altmaier did not solve the crucial permitting issue. New auction rounds remain undersubscribed, and the expansion of wind energy has almost come to a stop, while Covid-19 has cre- ated new uncertainties. A brief anecdote from Brussels A brief anecdote from Brussels makes me hopeful that we will choose the right path out of the current crisis. The Wind- Europe ofﬁce is in the heart of the Eu- ropean district. The streets around it are key thoroughfares. Everyone who has been to Brussels knows its notorious traf- fic jams. The streets are often jammed with cars, traffic, noise and pollution. Now the regional Brussels authorities have decided to give an entire lane over to cyclists. They are reshaping roads, giv- ing priority to pedestrians and limit- ing the maximum speed for cars. Simi- lar action is being taken in Paris, Lon- don and Milan. The initial idea behind these measures is to ensure social distanc- ing, but the authorities are clear that a big part of the new infrastructure put in place is here to stay. Giles Dickson is CEO of WindEurope, the European wind industry organization. Why is this relevant? It shows us a few things: ﬁrstly, that the current situation makes us readjust our priorities. A few months ago, it would have been impos- sible to create proper bike lanes on these streets. But Covid-19 can trigger funda- mental change. As European Govern- ments carve out recovery programs, they should critically review their priorities. All recovery packages should align with Europe’s main priority: climate neutral- ity by 2050. We cannot allow ourselves to fall back into old habits. Investments sectors and technologies that are not fu- ture-proof bear a high risk of stranded assets and lock-in effects. Secondly, Covid-19 has taught us that prevention is cheaper than cure. Author- ities take future public health costs into consideration when designing policy measures. The planned EUR 1 trillion stimulus provided by the Green Deal in- vestment pillar, the Sustainable Invest- ment Plan, will create sustainable jobs and green growth across Europe. Fight- ing climate change and its dangerous ef- fects on the well-being of Europeans de- mands preventive strategies: an accelerat- ed energy transition towards renewables, a higher price for carbon emissions, and investment in new green technologies such as renewable hydrogen and battery storage. Thirdly, as a society, we must draw lessons from the current pandemic, and apply our knowledge to a sustained and accelerated common effort to mitigate pollution. Covid-19 has taught us to trust in scientists, virologists and doc- tors. As we design our Covid-19 recov- ery strategies, the same prudence is re- quired. Let us listen to climate scientists and their warnings. And just as in the Brussels anecdote, let us make use of ex- isting solutions. Renewable energies are cheap and shovel-ready. A year after her election, von der Ley- en’s vision is more important than ever. Europe needs to embrace the European Green Deal as a historic chance to bounce back stronger and to cre- ate a healthier and greener Europe. * Guest articles do not necessarily reﬂect the opinion of the editorial team. Responsibility for their content lies with the author. new energy 2/2020 15 y e l k c i B n o s a J / e p o r u E d n W i : o t o h P
TECHNOLOGIES _Cover story When megatrends collide In spite of far-reaching consequences and abundant potential, burgeoning digitalisation has so far paid little regard to climate action. Germany’s environment minister hopes to change this with her new Digital Agenda. By Tim Altegör A video conference with work col- leagues in the morning, anoth- er with your parents in the afternoon. In the evening, perhaps an online yoga course, a digital reading, or even a spot of clubbing – via live stream in your living room, of course. Almost over- night, every aspect of our lives for which the transition is even remote- ly feasible has been migrated online – from work meetings to climate strikes (see page 36). In the space of just a few weeks, a de- velopment that has long been predicted – or feared, depending on your perspec- tive – has become reality. For example, the huge potential for carbon savings opened up by holding conferences on- line rather than flying participants in from around the world is nothing new – but until recently, it was largely ig- nored. Out of the blue, the coronavi- rus pandemic has brought ideas like this one to life, aided by a healthy dose of improvisation. In many respects the process is still somewhat shaky – and it’s not just the webcam that’s to blame. (...) This is an abridged version of the article – the full text is available in new energy issue 2/2020. new energy 2/2020 25 s e g a m I y t t e G / o t o h p k c o t S i : o t o h P
The right angle: the mirrors at this Heliogen solar thermal plant in California are controlled by soft- ware that ensures they are always optimally positioned to capture the sun’s energy. AI vs. climate change High hopes are pinned on artiﬁcial intelligence, including in the energy sector and the ﬁght against global warming. Machines won’t save the day on their own, but there are many areas in which they can help. n e g o i l e H : o t o h P By Tim Altegör new energy 2/2020 27 27
TECHNOLOGIES _Cover story S pring 2019 at an event venue in Berlin: Microsoft is hosting its “AI Festival”, devoted to the question of how artiﬁcial intelligence can contribute to a better world. The venue is packed. Lec- tures on the stage are transcribed in real time by speech recognition software, and punctuated by workshops in which ad- hoc groups brainstorm ways for AI to help make the world a better place. Our group is assigned the task of monitoring and protecting forests. Something in- volving drones, perhaps? Hardly a fully- ﬂedged plan, but it is praised neverthe- less. Much more concrete are the proj- ects ofﬁcially competing for a prize. The winning idea involves using AI to iden- tify damaged plants in photos taken by smartphone to avert crop failures. The mood is festive, euphoric even. A speech comes to an end, the moderator con- cludes with the words: “Great. And now let’s carry on saving the world.” In a study commissioned by Micro- soft, consulting firm PWC calculated that using AI could bring about a four percent reduction in carbon emissions by 2030. That said, the whole thing is somewhat speculative and abstract – starting with the term “artiﬁcial intelli- gence” itself. Machines with genuinely human-like intelligence remain ﬁrmly in the realm of ﬁction – numerous Holly- wood scenarios notwithstanding. What we do have are computer programs that are able to solve certain tasks with far greater precision and speed than people – and get better at doing so of their own accord. In other words, they have the ability to learn. The majority of current applications belong to the category of machine learning, a more common term 28 new energy 2/2020 in scientiﬁc circles than the less precise AI (see sidebar on page 29). Although we are unlikely to be ruled by robot overlords any time soon, rapid- ly evolving AI technology is raising vari- ous thorny questions for society. These include concerns over job losses, the se- curity of data – the raw material upon which self-learning programs depend – or the distribution of power between the public sphere and corporations in a global digital economy. Another prob- lem from an environmental perspective are the vast amounts of power consumed by the ever-greater computing capaci- ty needed for AI applications. The Eu- ropean Commission predicts that in the absence of regulation, the IT and com- munications sector could account for up to 14 percent of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2040. At the same time, the Commission recognises that proper use of digital technologies could contribute to a substantial reduction in emissions. In this light, it is not surprising that the two key ﬁelds of artiﬁcial intelligence and climate action are often connected – not just at the AI Festival, but at uni- versities too. Lynn Kaack, an energy and climate policy researcher at ETH Zurich, is interested in the use of machine learn- ing in these fields. She is currently ex- ploring the use of software to automati- cally trawl through large volumes of text, such as legislation, patents, or business reports, and analyse them for climate- related topics. In a previous project, she used machine learning methods to count trucks in satellite images to estimate traf- ﬁc volumes. Although the results are not entirely accurate, they do away with the need to install trafﬁc counters on roads. What is more, there is no need for a hu- man to go through the resulting images and decide which pixels represent trucks – instead, the machines learn to recog- nise the patterns automatically. “We are now able to extract information from data that was previously unusable,” says Kaack. However, machine learning has re- ceived little attention in the ﬁeld of cli- mate action to date, she adds. On the other hand, there are IT experts who are keener to devote their energy to the climate crisis than to algorithms for the advertising industry. Kaack is one of three chairs of the “Climate Change AI” group, an initiative devoted to strength- ening ties between climate and AI re- search run by a group of young research- ers in the US, Canada, Germany and Switzerland with support from veteran researchers in both ﬁelds. The group has received considerable attention, particularly in the AI world, Kaack says. This is probably due in no small measure to the involvement of high-proﬁle team members such as Yo- shua Bengio, widely regarded as a glob- al pioneer in AI. “And there seem to be many AI engineers who want to do something meaningful for the world,” Kaack observes. Among the project’s goals is offering guidance to these experts on how best to put their talents to use. (...) This is an abridged version of the article – the full text is available in new energy issue 2/2020.
TECHNOLOGIES _Storage Europe joins the battery race European battery production capacity is being bolstered to reduce dependence on world market leaders in China and South Korea. To improve battery technology and make a stand against competition in Asia, the EU has launched a large-scale research initiative. By Jan Oliver Löfken M ost lithium-ion batteries are cur- rently made in Asia. However, Europe is ﬁnally starting to build facto- ries that will produce dozens of gigawatt hours (GWh) of storage capacity each year. In 2021, Swedish company North- volt plans to begin mass production in a new facility in the north of the coun- try, and expects to reach an output of 32 GWh by 2024. Meanwhile, the com- pany is hoping to start work on a sec- ond Northvolt gigafactory in the north- ern German town of Salzgitter next year, with a planned output of 16 GWh start- ing in 2024. By comparison, Tesvolt’s battery plant in Wittenberg, launched last month with a capacity of 255 mega- watt hours (MWh) seems rather modest. With its new plant currently under construction in Grünheide, near Ber- lin, Tesla is also staking a claim to be- come one of Europe’s ﬁrst mass produc- ers of batteries. However, plans for the ﬁrst construction phase are disappoint- ing, with only vehicle assembly envis- aged starting in summer 2021. When – or whether – a production line for lithi- um-ion batteries will follow has yet to be determined, according to Manager Mag- azin. That said, it is not unlikely that the Tesla EVs will be fitted with batteries made in Germany: Chinese manufactur- 40 new energy 2/2020 er CATL (Contemporary Amperex Tech- nology) plans to begin operation of its ﬁrst large-scale battery cell plant in Eu- rope near the German town of Erfurt in 2022. Besides Tesla, potential customers include German carmakers such as Volk- swagen, BMW or Daimler. There will be no shortage of buyers, in spite of the imminent recession brought on by the coronavirus outbreak. Accord- ing to the latest roadmap by EU research initiative Battery 2030+, global demand for batteries will increase ten-fold by 2030, to over 2,600 GWh, primarily in the electromobility sector (2,333 GWh). Demand for stationary storage facilities for the electricity grid or wind and solar farms is also expected to explode, from 10 GWh today to 221 GWh ten years from now. Smartphones, tablets and lap- tops will need batteries totalling almost 70 GWh by 2030. In the EU alone, demand is set to rise from around 60 GWh at present to 443 GWh in ten years. In addition to the current global market leaders in China and South Korea, European manufac- turers will also be fighting for a piece of this mushrooming market – all the more so in view of the coronavirus out- break, which has highlighted the urgency of reducing dependence on global sup- ply chains. “The industry in Europe has woken up, and is increasingly willing to take risks,” says Maximilian Fichtner, a chemist and spokesman of the Cen- tre for Electrochemical Energy Storage Ulm-Karlsruhe (CELEST), a key ﬁgure in the Battery 2030+ project. “There is no question that large-scale battery cell production is on the cards for Europe,” agrees Markus Börner, head of the cell systems department at the Münster Elec- trochemical Energy Technology (MEET) battery research centre. The bar is high for new battery cell factories. “Battery development de- pends on four main factors: energy den- sity, battery life, safety and cost,” says Börner. He cautions against reading too much into the intermittent reports of new laboratory prototypes that can be fully charged in just a few minutes, or give electric cars a range of 1,000 km. “It’s not enough to focus solely on en- ergy density – all four aspects are impor- tant,” he warns. New battery cells should offer a high storage capacity, of 300 or more watt hours (Wh) per kilo, while costing no more than EUR 110 to 140 per kilowatt hour (kWh) of stored elec- tricity, Börner explains, adding that by 2024 the price is likely to fall to EUR 90 per kWh. Meanwhile, customers want
TECHNOLOGIES _Electromobility Batteries of the future: at the MEET Battery Research Centre in Münster, scientists are using sophisticated analysis technology like this time-of-ﬂight mass spectrometer to identify new materials for the next generation of batteries. increasing longevity and a high level of safety. “A battery should be capable of around 2,000 cycles if it is to be of in- terest to the EV sector,” he says. At 300 km per cycle this adds up to a total of 600,000 km. Lithium-ion systems are likely to dominate the field for many years yet. “There is no prospect of replacing lithi- um in the foreseeable future, but supplies are not about to run out,” says Börner. Nevertheless, the vast amounts of water used to extract the metal in countries like Chile or, increasingly, Bolivia is an issue, particularly in dry regions. Even more problematic are the other metals used in the cathode – the battery’s positive ter- minal. Cobalt in particular – mined pri- marily in the Democratic Republic of the Congo under inhumane conditions – is surrounded by a great deal of contro- versy today. By comparison, metals like nickel or manganese are less contentious. Metal-saving designs As things currently stand, battery mak- ers cannot do without these materials. “Nickel ensures high capacity, cobalt enables rapid charging and discharg- ing, and manganese offers better struc- tural stability,” explains Börner. Never- theless, the industry is in search of ways to become less dependent on these three metals. In particular, manufacturers have been reducing the amount of co- balt in their battery cells for a number of years. Whereas the cathodes of older lithium-ion batteries contain equal parts nickel, manganese and cobalt, in mod- ern battery products the share of co- balt has been reduced to 20 percent. In many new factories, the cobalt content in NMC-811 batteries has been halved again. “811 systems are making a big im- pact on the market,” says Börner. Fichtner agrees that 811 systems, con- taining 8 parts nickel to 1 part manga- nese and cobalt, are suitable for mass production. However, he regards the increased nickel content as a cause for concern: although this approach allows higher storage capacities, the ﬂipside is a compromise on stability at high temper- atures. “And who knows whether nickel will remain as cheap as it is today in fu- ture?” Börner asks. Fichtner too believes that nickel will become “the next cobalt” in the not-too-distant future. Accordingly, the search continues for an even better chemical make-up for batteries and more efﬁcient manufactur- ing processes. Manufacturers may soon be able to do without cobalt altogeth- er: “Cobalt-free systems such as lithium t f a r K h t i d u J / T E E M : o t o h P nickel manganese oxide or lithium iron phosphate and their substitute equiv- alents have great potential in the long term,” says Börner. However, these bat- teries have to be much larger than their cobalt equivalents to store the same amount of electricity, making them more suitable for applications like electric bus- es or stationary storage facilities, where space is not at a premium. In a few years, lithium sulphur sys- tems could be at the mass production stage – but they too take up more space, besides lacking the necessary resilience in their current form. Researchers are in- vestigating ways to increase their current useful life of just a few hundred charge cycles. The technology is worth the ef- fort: lithium sulphur batteries are com- paratively light, and could potentially outdo even nickel manganese cobalt sys- tems, offering up to 700 Wh per kilo. Besides the cathode, the anode – or negative terminal – is also likely to un- dergo modiﬁcations in the next genera- tion of batteries. Most anodes are cur-rently made of graphite. (...) This is an abridged version of the article – the full text is available in new energy issue 2/2020. new energy 2/2020 41
is now available as an e-paper No. 2 / May 2020 65570 No. 2 / May 2020 65570 www.newenergy.info magazine for climate action and renewable energy magazine for climate action and renewable Challenging Asia Europe’s battery revolution E Cr Crisis mode Coro Coronavirus and the wi the wind industry Enjoy a free trial of the e-paper at Learning Learning to care to care Can AI help save Can AI help save the planet? the planet? www.newenergy.info Read all about the switch to renewables on your tablet, smartphone or laptop. Subscribe online at www.newenergy.info/subscriptions